Saturday, June 30, 2012

Another Living Fossil: The Coelacanth

400 millions years ago (MYA), during the Devonian Period, life had already gained a foothold on land.  However, in the seas, unless you were at the top of the food chain, there were a lot of predators to contend with.  If you were a fish in the middle of the food chain during the Devonian, you not only had to deal with ancestors of the modern day shark, but a now-extinct group of armor-plated fish, called the Placoderms.  Some of these Placoderms, like Dunkleosteus, grew to simply enormous proportions, around 30 feet in length!  One type of fish that lived during the Devonian and was most likely preyed upon by the sharks and the Placoderms was a fish known as the Coelacanth.

The Coelacanth (SEE-lah-canth) was a relatively unassuming fish, its closest living relative being the lobe-finned fish.  Fossils of the Coelacanth have been discovered ranging from 400 MYA to around 65 MYA, coinciding with the death of the dinosaurs.  In 1938, however, when one was hauled in on a fishing net off the coast of South Africa, the temporal range of this animal was extended by 65 million years!  Today, by studying the living Coelacanth, scientists have found that the fish gives birth to live young, unlike other fish.  Further discoveries both in Africa (off the coasts of Mozambique, Madagascar, Kenya and Tanzania) as well as Asia, around Sulawesi, Indonesia, of living Coelacanth specimens have further widened the current geographical range of the Coelacanth.
A specimen of the Cretaceous coelacanth Coccoderma nudum from Germany.  On display at the Mace Brown Museum of Natural History on the campus of the College of Charleston in South Carolina.
Unfortunately for this living fossil, it is labeled "Critically Endangered" by the IUCN, much like yesterday's living fossil, the mountain pygmy possum.  Just like the mountain pygmy possum, conservationist groups are working towards it's protection, trying to keep fisherman from fishing in the Coelacanth's habitat.  Hopefully, humans won't be the final nail in the coffin, so to speak, for this 400 million year old fish.

Friday, June 29, 2012

Animal Spotlight: The Mountain Pygmy Possum

You've probably never heard of the mountain pygmy possum (Burramys parvus); few people have, it being one of Australia's many lesser known marsupials.  One of five extant (opposite of extinct, or still living today) species of pygmy possum, the mountain pygmy possum has a very interesting story about its discovery, a story that we will now look at.

The genus Burramys, the genus the mountain pygmy possum is a part of, also contains three extinct species of possum.   In fact, prior to 1966, the mountain pygmy possum had been described solely from fossils dated from the Pleistocene Epoch.  (The Pleistocene Epoch dates from around 2.5 million years ago to around 10,000 years ago, when the last Ice Age ended.)  It was first described from these Pleistocene fossils by the famous geologist/zoologist/paleontologist Robert Broom in the year 1896, and was assumed to be extinct, just like the other three members of the genus Burramys.  That is until 1966, when one showed up in a ski hut on Mount Hotham, a mountain in New South Wales, southern Australia, and home to the Hotham Alpine Resort.

Since this surprising discovery, scientists have located three populations of the Mountain Pygmy Possum in different spots in southern Australia.  Although it is exciting to discover a species that was previously thought to be extinct, it is saddening to find out that this animal has a wild population of a mere 2,000 individuals, and is labeled "Critically Endangered" by the IUCN.  Means have been taken to protect the mountain pygmy possum, including the so-called "Tunnel of Love," a little possum-path that granted the males better access to the female habitat, and helping to reduce fatal encounters with automobiles.

Works Cited:

Mountain Pygmy Possum. (n.d.). - Just another weblog. Retrieved June 29, 2012, from

Wednesday, June 27, 2012

Digest This: Or Can You? A Koala Could

I've been reading some interesting things about the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) that I thought you might be interested in hearing.  As we all know, koalas are one of the sleepiest animals, and can be found sleeping and resting around eighteen or nineteen hours a day.  That means that out of their thirteen year life span, they are sleeping for around ten of those years. By comparison, a human with a lifespan of seventy-five years that sleeps an average of eight hours a day would sleep around 25 years of their life.  While a lot more than twelve years for the koala, keep in mind that humans only sleep around 33% of their life, while koalas sleep around a whopping 75-80%. But why do they sleep so much? The answer lies in what they eat: Eucalyptus leaves.

The leaves of the Eucalyptus trees are incredibly hard to digest.  Not only are the leaves very fibrous, much like celery (think about how hard celery is to chew), but they are also chock-full of toxins that very few animals can digest, with especially high concentrations of volatile oils and phenolic compounds.  What does that mean in English?  Well, phenolics are a type of organic chemical that naturally occur in plants, where they can act as deterrents against predatory browsing at the hands (or rather the mouths) of herbivores.  As stated before, the concentration of phenolics in the Eucalyptus leaves are so high that most animals would simply be unable to digest the leaves.  The koala decided not to take this lying down (ironic, as that is most of what koalas do in a day), and have evolved in a few key ways to help them deal with these toxins.
A fascinating moment of a koala's life: being awake.  Quite the statistical anomaly.
The first is simple; they have teeth that are great for chewing.  The broad, high-cusped molars possessed by the koala help it to thoroughly mash the food in its mouth prior to further digestion.  In our own mouth, we also have molars, along with a wide assortment of other types of teeth. When you are chewing your dinner, you tear bite-sized chunks off with your front teeth, or incisors and canines. Then, you move the food to the back of your mouth for further processing, and you further chew the food with your molars. The cusps on our teeth make it so the food is crushed fairly thoroughly. However, the koala doesn’t eat food like lettuce that can be torn up fairly easily. Thus, the koala has higher cusps on their molars, allowing for the Eucalyptus leaves to be ground up quite nicely.
A koala skeleton on display at the American Museum of Natural History in New York, New York.  Note the molars in the back.
The second major evolutionary adaptation is that the koala has a very long cecum, a pouch of sorts that is considered to be the first part of the large intestine.  In fact, at four times its own body length, the cecum of the koala is proportionally longer than that of any other mammal on the planet! The bacteria in the cecum help to break down the tough tissues in plants, such as cellulose, an important structural component of the cell wall in plants.  This gives our fuzzy marsupial friend a whole lot more time and space for that tough plant material to be digested.  Apparently, it takes a whole lot of guts to be a koala.
Believe it or not, I don't have a picture of a koala cecum on file.  So instead, take a look at this other interesting adaptation of the koala.  Instead of having a single thumb like we humans have, it has two!  Its first two digits are both functional thumbs, and are opposable to the other three digits on their hand.  You can see part of the hand skeleton the picture above this one.
Koalas aren't born with those important cecum bacteria, though, and to my knowledge no animals really are.  After five months of suckling from mom, the koala joey starts to enjoy the "partially digested leaf material produced from the female's anus" (MacDonald, 1984), or, as I like to call it, "Mom's Butt Leaves."  This delicious meal is actually thought to come from the cecum, giving the joey those essential bacteria and microbes, not to mention a delightful, pre-digested meal of Mom's Butt Leaves.  (Check out our other post about butt bacteria and eating poop HERE.)
Get yours at your local King Soopers today!
A fourth innovation of the koala is simply the exorbitant amount of time that the marsupial spends sleeping.  When you sleep, you are burning fewer calories than you would be if you were running around or hunting, or moving through a Eucalyptus tree browsing on its leaves.  Therefore, the more time the koala spends sleeping, the more energy it saves in exchange.  (The popular myth that the koala gets "stoned" by the Eucalyptus leaves is nothing more than that: a myth.)  The koala is able to delicately walk the line that we all desire to find: the maximum amount of sleep that one can get without dying.  It's truly a marvelous achievement, one which the koala handles with much grace and aplomb.
During the Pleistocene, there existed a larger species of koala, Phascolarctos stirtoni, a slightly larger koala than the modern species, P. cinereus.  Based on dentary measurements of both species from Price et. al., I came up with an approximate size increase of 1.4.  That is, take the length of a body part of P. cinereus, the modern koala, and multiple that value by 1.4, and you should get the approximate length of the same body part for the robust koala, P. stirtoni.  Not exactly the most precise method, but one that'll work for our purposes.  Below, you can see an approximate size comparison that I made of the two koalas, our modern species in gray and the extinct species in brown.
An approximate size comparison between the modern Phascolarctos cinereus (right) and the extinct P. stirtoni, with a can of Mom's Butt Leaves for scale.
More recently, scientists have realized that there is actually no evidence that does not support the idea that the hypothetical Laser-Eyed Koala (Phascolarctos oculaser) could have maybe possibly existed.  Scientists have been quoted as saying "We have never found it but that's not to say that who's to say that we aren't all koalas."  Below is the first unrefuted photographic evidence of the Laser-Eyed Koala in action.

That incredible, hands-on natural history museum in scenic Morrison, Colorado never stood a chance against that koala.  Fortunately, repairs to the facility should be completed on time for tomorrows 10:15 AM tour, which is included with your admission fee and well worth the time.  Talk about great free advertising, am I right?

Works Cited:

Hättenschwiler, S., & Vitousek, P. (2000). The role of polyphenols in terrestrial ecosystem nutrient cycling. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 238-243.

Logan, M., & Sanson, G. (2002). The effect of tooth wear on the feeding behaviour of free-ranging koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus, Goldfuss). Journal of Zoology, 63-69.

Macdonald, D. (1984). The Encyclopedia of mammals. New York, NY: Facts on File.

Nagy, K., & Martin, R. (1985). Field Metabolic Rate, Water Flux, Food Consumption and Time Budget of Koalas, Phascolarctos Cinereus (Marsupialia: Phascolarctidae) in Victoria. Australian Journal of Zoology Aust. J. Zool., 655-655.

Piper, K. (2005). An early Pleistocene record of a giant koala (Phascolarctidae: Marsupialia) from western Victoria. Australian Mammalogy Aust. Mammalogy, 221-221.
Price, G. (2008). Is the modern koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) a derived dwarf of a Pleistocene giant? Implications for testing megafauna extinction hypotheses. Quaternary Science Reviews, 2516-2521.

Price, G., Zhao, J., Feng, Y., & Hocknull, S. (2009). New records of Plio-Pleistocene koalas from Australia: Palaeoecological and taxonomic implications. Records of the Australian Museum Rec. Aust. Mus., 39-48.

Hello There

Hello, my name is Zack Neher.  I hope to be able to use this blog as a platform to help share my love of nature with the world, and talk about some things that I find interesting, and hopefully, you will too.  Enjoy!
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